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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2983\margr3623\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2983\margrsxn3623\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx965 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex98\expndtw-18\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 76{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw6 POSITION OF WOMEN: THE STATE}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li14\fi0\ri4\sb223\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 ces marriages of maidens when they are only twelve or eight years old;\super 1\nosupersub  but with regard to the sale of daughters he seems to express contradictory opinions.\super 2\nosupersub  A woman \expndtw4 could be abandoned or divorced by the husband if she \expndtw8 was barren or bore only daughters,\super 3\nosupersub  as also on the \expndtw1 ground of unfaithfulness. Manu deprecates widow-re\-\expndtw5 marriage and \i Niyoga \i0 (Levitate)/ whereas Narada per\-\expndtw6 mits both. \i Stridhana \i0 apart, it is not made explicit by \expndtw3 Manu if a widow was entitled to inherit her husband's \expndtw10 property.\super 6\nosupersub  Narada denies this right to her; Yajfia-\expndtw1 valkya, on the other hand, recognises a widow as her \expndtw5 husband's heir. Although the custom of \i Safi \i0 does not \expndtw3 obtain sanction till late, the lot of widows, debarred as \expndtw2 they were from participating in auspicious ceremonies, \expndtw5 must have been hard indeed. There is no mention of \i\expndtw7 Purdah, \i0 and Manu admits that nobody could "guard a \expndtw5 a woman by force." \super 6}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li68\fi0\ri0\sb241\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs23 The State}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li47\fi436\ri14\sb209\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw10\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The \i Smritis \i0 recognise monarchy as the normal \expndtw8 form of government. Manu emphasises the necessity \expndtw9 of having a king, for without him confusion would \expndtw6 reign supreme all round (VII, 3). The king is attribut\-\expndtw18 ed a divine origin. Manu says : "A king, though \expndtw8 an infant, must not be despised because he looks a \expndtw12 human being; verily, he is a great deity in human \expndtw11 toon. He further adds : "Through his powers \i (pra-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li2290\fi0\ri0\sb436\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex42\expndtw-3\f3\cchs0\lang1033\fs38 Z04;}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn4441\margrsxn3623\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-248\slmult0 \f2\fs20\pvpara\phcol\posnegx-1386\posnegy324\absw2959\absh-864\dfrmtxtx40\dfrmtxty58 {\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 IX,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li234\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-248\slmult0 \f2\fs20\pvpara\phcol\posnegx-1386\posnegy324\absw2959\absh-864\dfrmtxtx40\dfrmtxty58 {\b0\i\super\cf1\charscalex75\expndtw11\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs31 3\nosupersub  \i0\super 6\nosupersub #tf.,i, to.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li364\fi0\ri0\sb4\sa0\sl-248\slmult0\tx2707 \f2\fs20\pvpara\phcol\posnegx-1386\posnegy324\absw2959\absh-864\dfrmtxtx40\dfrmtxty58 {\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex76\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs19 7{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw-1 <[%}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb238\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw8\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 inhedt\nosupersub  \super the\nosupersub  P\super r\nosupersub\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'b0\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 P\super ert\nosupersub 7 of her issueless son   \i (IbM.\sub t}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li2074\fi151\ri0\sb299\sa0\sl-263\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 | \expndtw2 II    \i (Mamtsmriti, \i0 VII, 8).}\par }